Anti Apolipoprotein B antibody recognizes the gene product of APOB that is the primary apolipoprotein of low-density lipoproteins, which is responsible for carrying cholesterol to tissues. While it is unclear exactly what functional role APOB plays in LDL, it is the primary apolipoprotein component and is absolutely required for its formation. What is clear is that the APOB on the LDL particle acts as a ligand for LDL receptors in various cells throughout the body. Through a mechanism that is not fully understood, high levels of APOB can lead to plaques that cause vascular disease (atherosclerosis), leading to heart disease. There is considerable evidence that levels of APOB are a better indicator of heart disease and cardiovascular risk than total cholesterol or LDL. However, primarily for historic reasons, cholesterol, and more specifically, LDL-cholesterol, remains the primary lipid test for the risk factor of atherosclerosis.
apoLipoprotein Type B was isolated from human plasma by density gradient centrifugation followed by HPLC purification.