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Growth factors and cytokines represent two classes of cell-signaling protein molecules that can confer positive and negative (inhibitory) effects on cell growth and proliferation. Both molecules types are secreted by numerous different cells and display a matching cell surface receptor, thus facilitating the alteration of cellular functions upon formation of intracellular signal cascades responsible for up- and downregulating individual genes and their associated transcription factors.Distinct changes in growth factor and cytokine levels have been linked to various disease states and conditions, thus modern research has focused on understanding disease onset and progression by investigating these cell-signaling molecules on a cellular level.
With research in mind, Rockland provides an exquisite panel of purified proteins and antibodies developed against these signaling molecules for use in the analyses by western blot, ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, FLISA and many more.
IL-6 Mouse Recombinant Protein
EGF displays a very high affinity for binding to its cellular surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); thereby stimulating the intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. In turn, activity of the tyrosine kinase translates into a signal transduction cascade resulting in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell including elevated intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis. Furthermore, upregulation of gene expression levels including the EGF gene result in increased DNA synthesis followed by cell proliferation. EGF proliferates growth of mesodermal and ectodermal cells, while inhibiting growth of certain carcinomas and decreasing gastric acid secretion.
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) represents one of the many secreted growth factors responsible for regulating growth and division. It is a dimeric glycoprotein consisting of two distinct polypeptide chains – either homodimeric A/A or B/B chain arrangements or a heterodimeric combination of the two (AB). As described for EGF, PGDF binds to its specific cell surface receptor referred to as the PDGF receptor or PDGFR. This receptor displays intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and upon auto-phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor results in the binding of cofactors responsible for intitating numerous signal transduction cascades affecting downstream regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle.
Five different PDGF isoforms classified as ligands A (PDGFA), B (PDGFB), C (PDGFC), and D (PDGFD) and the AB heterodimer are capable of binding to two distict hetero- or homo- dimeric receptor isoforms, PDGFR alpha and PDGFR beta, with varying affinity. Proliferative responses to PDGF are exerted on many mesenchymal cell types, with other growth-related responses to PDGF including cytoskeletal rearrangement and increased polyphosphoinositol turnover.
FGFs are heparin-binding proteins; their interaction with cell surface associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans has proven essential for FGF induced signal transduction. These multifunctional growth factors are essential in the proliferation and differentiation of a wide variety of cells types and tissues and are primarily associated with angiogenesis, wound healing and embryonic development.
Structurally related, the family of human FGFs includes 22 members displaying differing functionalities. FGFs play a dominant role in the development of the skeletal system and nervous system in mammals and are also neurotrophic for cells of both the peripheral and central nervous system.
Cytokines are a unique class of secreted signaling proteins produced by a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types. These are extensively used in cellular communication regulating immune functions and embryogenesis. Cell surface receptors are specific to individual cytokines that upon occupation induce intracellular signaling cascades resulting in the alteration of cellular functions. These may include the upregulation and/or downregulation of genes and their associated transcription factors; result in the synthesis of other cytokines; increase in the number of cell surface receptors for other molecules or suppress their own effect by feedback inhibition. They can exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects and are secreted primarily from leukocytes. Cytokines stimulate the humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as the activation of phagocytic cells.
Rockland focusses on the development of products providing outstanding results and creating a difference in today’s society. Our quality assurance process is accurate and consistent, ensuring that the data produced by our antibodies can withstand the test of time. We want you to make the next big scientific discovery. Trust your results to Rockland. Compromise elsewhere.
Common applications for Rockland growth factors and cytokines include:
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The Mouse TrueBlot® Western Blot Kit contains the critical supporting reagents, buffers, and substrates for Akt immunoprecipitation and Western blotting of samples using TrueBlot second step immunoblotting reagents in conjunction with your own primary IP antibody and primary (Mouse IgG) Western blotting antibody. TrueBlot technology enables unhindered detection of protein bands of interest which would otherwise be obscured by the presence of reduced and denatured heavy and light chain immunoglobulin in the blot (as detected by the conventional immunoblotting HRP anti-mouse IgG reagent). Mouse IgG TrueBlot® ULTRA is the unique horseradish peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse IgG immunoblotting second step reagent which enables detection of Akt immunoblotted target protein bands, without hindrance by interfering immunoglobulin heavy and light chains from your IP antibody. Use it in place of your usual HRP anti-mouse IgG immunoblotting second step reagent. It is easy to generate publication-quality Akt IP Western Blot data with Mouse IgG TrueBlot® ULTRA.
Mouse IgG TrueBlot ULTRA is ideal for use in protocols involving immunoblotting of immunoprecipitated proteins. TrueBlot preferentially detects the non-reduced form of mouse IgG over the reduced, SDS-denatured form of IgG. When the immunoprecipitate is fully reduced immediately prior to SDS-gel electrophoresis, reactivity of Mouse IgG TrueBlot ULTRA with the 55 kDa heavy chains and the 23 kDa light chains of the immunoprecipitating antibody is minimized thereby eliminating interference by the heavy and light chains of the immunoprecipitating antibody in Akt IP Western Blotting applications. Applications include studies examining post-translational modification (e.g., phosphorylation or acetylation) or protein-protein interactions.
Rockland Immunochemicals Inc.Gilbertsville, PA 19525E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPhone: 800.656.7625