Proteins and Peptides

Proteins and Peptides Introduction


Peptides are small polymers of amino acid monomers that are bonded together and distinguished from proteins by their size (typically containing fewer than 50 monomer units). Peptides allow the development of antibodies of a very specific region of a protein without the need to purify the protein of interest. They also allow for the identification of proteins of interest based on peptide masses and sequence. Typically, peptides are used in clinical research to examine the inhibition of cancer proteins and other diseases.





Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides, which is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. Like other biological macromolecules, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells, making them ideal for various testing procedures to identify effective disease prevention techniques.

Collagen Proteins Gamma Globulin Fractions  
Purified Immunoglobulin Proteins Cytokines and other Growth Factors  
Sepharose / Agarose Conjugates Control Peptides
Beta Amyloid Peptides Epigenetic Peptides
Apelin & Apelin Analog Peptides  


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Collagen Proteins

Collagen is a long fibrous protein that is a major component of the extracellular matrix and provides support to most tissues and cell structures. Collagen is a very strong protein and is widely used in medical and food industries. As a research protein, collagen is useful to study cellular interactions and intracellular structure.


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Gamma Globulin


Globulin is one of the three types of serum proteins produced in the liver. Gamma globulins can be identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. The most significant gamma globulins are immunoglobulins, more commonly known as antibodies. These globulin fractions can be used to identify specific areas of interest in a cellular biology study, increasing researchers’ ability to learn more about protein functions within cells.


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Purified Immunoglobulin Proteins

Immunoglobulins (Ig), also known as antibodies, are glycoproteins that are secreted and function as antigen binders in the immune response. There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Rockland offers highly purified native immunoglobulin proteins and fractions from various species in conjugated and non-conjugated form. These native proteins are suitable in different assays including ELISA, FLISA, Western Blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and Immunohistochemistry (IHC).


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Cytokines and other Growth Factors


Cytokines, growth factors, and hormones mediate intercellular communications through cell surface receptors (Rc). The activated receptor may then interact with other cellular components to complete the signal transduction process. Many growth factors bind to receptors that are linked through G-proteins to membrane-bound phospholipase C, making them crucial to understanding the cellular signaling cycle.



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Sepharose / Agarose Conjugates


Antibodies, proteins, and peptides can be conjugated to insoluble matrices or supports such as agarose, sepharose and glass. These supports can then be activated by amine coupling reagents to make them more effective in various types of biological studies.


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Control Peptides

Rockland delivers control peptides manufactured under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) to the life science, biotech, and pharmaceutical communities. We offer a number of catalog control peptides for the categories of Beta Amyloid, Epigenetics and Apelin.

If you do not see the specific peptide you require for your research please contact Rockland (here) and it can be made on a custom basis to fulfill your needs.


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Beta Amyloid Peptides

Rockland offers a variety of Aβ peptides for Alzheimer research and other Amyloid β degradation studies.
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, 39 to 43 amino acid peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), are the major component of plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Aβ peptides are formed from the systematic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the enzymes β- and γ-secretase. Two major Aβ peptides are formed from APP cleavage: Aβ40 and Aβ42. Although Aβ40 is the most abundant form, Aβ42 is more fibrillogenic due to the C-terminal extension that adds two additional hydrophobic amino acids. N-terminal truncations can also occur at positions 3 and 11 associated with cyclization of the resulting N-terminal glutamines (forming pyroglutamate). This results in the generation of peptides like pyrE3-40, pyrE11-40, pyrE3-42 or pyrE11-42. These peptides are very hydrophobic and may represent the species that initially aggregate to form the core of the amyloid plaques. Early onset AD has been linked to APP mutations due at least in part to altered proteolytic cleavage of the mutated APP. This results in an increase in Aβ42 formation relative to Aβ40. Finally, Aβ proteins have been associated with other diseases including cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Lewy body dementia, the second most common type of progressive dementia after AD.


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Epigenetic Peptides

To support epigenetic research and our Epi-Plus antibodies, Rockland offers a comprehensive group of peptides to provide a one stop shop for epigenetic researchers.

Epigenetics (“above” genetics) is the study of DNA, RNA and protein modifications that do not involve changes in gene sequences. The modifications involve the acetylation and/or methylation of DNA or protein and are referred to as “Epigenetic marks”. These marks, studied primarily in histones and other proteins that control the regulation of gene expression, transcription, and protein-protein interaction, have been implicated in an array of human pathophysiological conditions that includes cancer, obesity, diabetes, drug addiction (and addictive phenotypes in general), and post-traumatic stress disorder. The pattern of Epigenetic marks on histones coordinate the binding of repressors, activators, and other proteins. Current research is focused on understanding how specific patterns of marks can act in a coordinated fashion to generate a specific phenotype.


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Apelin & Apelin Analog Peptides

Apelin, derived from the APLN gene (transcript of 77 amino acids in length) and found to be the ligand for the AJP receptor, is processed into several different peptides from 12 to 36 amino acids long. Apelin has been shown to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure, angiogenesis, water and food intake, inflammation, immunodeficiency, and insulin resistance. Apelin research is accelerating due to its myriad effects on many different organ systems.


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